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    Research of deviance and social problems ( Scientific )
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    As social issues have beenirregularly increase in the recent years, the need to identify the causes, contexts, dimensions and consequences of these issues become doubled.Research on these areas becomes more and more crucial due to extending of subject as well as varieties of background and types of social issues. In order to response to this need,Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences in ACECR with cooperation of Scientific Communitysuch as Iranian Association for Sociology of education and Iranian Association of Women’s Studies published quarterly on title “Research on Iran Social Issues”.The quarterly journal of “Research on Iran Social Issues” invites all researches, experts, scholars and students to send their articles on the different social issues through the journal site risi.ihss.ac.ir  


    Recent Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - The Relationship Between Macroeconomic Indicators and Collective Conflict
      Ismail  Jahani Dolatabad taha ashayeri Hossein Heydari
      Issue 7 , Vol. 3 , Spring 2023
      Collective conflict refers to the conflict, conflict and physical tension of more than two people, which is affected by the social, economic and cultural conditions of the society. According to surveys, and based on the data of the Forensic Medicine Organization since 2 More
      Collective conflict refers to the conflict, conflict and physical tension of more than two people, which is affected by the social, economic and cultural conditions of the society. According to surveys, and based on the data of the Forensic Medicine Organization since 2013 to 2121, the amount of conflict has increased in the provinces of the country. The main purpose of the research is to study of the relationship between macroeconomic indicators and collective conflict in the period of 2015-2018. The research method is the secondary analysis, data were analyzed using Spss software. The results are reported in the form of descriptive, including frequency tables, and charts, and central indices, as well as inferential statistics, including bivariate and multivariate tests. The results show that the increase in inflation, unemployment and Gini coefficient between 2015 and 2018 has been effective in increasing the amount of conflict in different provinces of the country. According to this, with economic disorder (economic disorganization), due to the increase in unemployment, inflation and class gap as well as the reduction of social resilience, mental instability, the feeling of scarcity of resources (crisis of production, distribution and consumption) and the feeling of economic abnormality, people's social behaviors has become more radical, violent and aggressive. The important reason for the collective conflict in the provinces of the country in the above period of time has been functioning of economic institutions. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Domestic Violence Against Men )Case Study: The Flakei Marginal Region of Khorram Abad City)
      vali bahrami Sara salimi fatemeh vandabrahim
      Issue 7 , Vol. 3 , Spring 2023
      Domestic violence against men has many dysfunctional consequences that affect not only the individual and the family, but also the middle and macro levels of society. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the components of women's violence against men in the mar More
      Domestic violence against men has many dysfunctional consequences that affect not only the individual and the family, but also the middle and macro levels of society. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the components of women's violence against men in the marginal region of Falkei, Khorram Abad city. The studied sample is all married men in the marginal region of Falkei, Khorram Abad city. Targeted sampling has been done. Ten men with experience of violence were interviewed. The type of interviews was semi-structured. Data analysis was done using thematic analysis and after coding the data, 241 open codes, 20 sub-categories and 6 main categories were extracted. To validate the data, variety of techniques were applied such as re-examining the participants, re-examining by experts, using external referees and clarifying citation and transferability. Findings shows that violence against men arises from "double work, the label of irresponsibility, rolelessness in the decision-making process, threats of suicide and divorce, comparison, humiliation and blame, and sexual deprivation". The results of this research show that women have created the necessary grounds for violence against men by economic bottlenecks, comparisons, verbal violence and as a result increasing tension. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - The Relationship Between Adolescent Disobedience and Dependence on Social Networks virtual in the Family Environment (Case study: Secondary School Students of District 17 of Tehran)
      Tahmineh Shaverdi zeinab Maghferati Shamsabad
      Issue 7 , Vol. 3 , Spring 2023
      The aim of this research is to analyze the disobedience of adolescents in the family environment based on addiction to virtual social networks among secondery school students of the 17th district of Tehran. The study method is survey and the statistical population is th More
      The aim of this research is to analyze the disobedience of adolescents in the family environment based on addiction to virtual social networks among secondery school students of the 17th district of Tehran. The study method is survey and the statistical population is the lower secondery school of the 17th district of Tehran. The sample size is 347 individuals selected using simple random sampling method based on Cochran's formula. The data collection tools consist of the Addiction to Social Networks questionnaire (Yang 1998) and the Adolescents' Disobedience questionnaire (Motamedi and colleagues 2021).The results of the Pearson correlation test showed that the relationship between daily activity disorder, family-social functioning, mental health, and self-control with adolescent disobedience is equal to 21%, 31%, 25%, and 25% respectively. Furthermore, regression model analyses showed that the impact of addiction to social networks on adolescent disobedience is 33%. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Investigating Twitter campaigns of Violence Against Women
      shima nasertork ali delavar afsaneh mozaffari tahmores shiri
      Issue 7 , Vol. 3 , Spring 2023
      One of the most important topics that social networks -Twitter- have paid attention to is violence against women in Iran. The most important theoretical support in the emergence of these campaigns is the reflection of the texts about violence against women. One of the m More
      One of the most important topics that social networks -Twitter- have paid attention to is violence against women in Iran. The most important theoretical support in the emergence of these campaigns is the reflection of the texts about violence against women. One of the most important factors in the emergence of such waves is the important activists in the field of these social networks, who use their followers to reflect these contents. The most important campaigns in terms of the number of tweets and retweets was the "Girls of the Revolution" campaign. The aim of the research is to analyze the performance of Twitter in reflecting the content of violence against women in Iran based on the most important campaigns that have emerged in the last decade. This issue was analyzed based on the theoretical foundations of types of violence and networked movements. The research method is the content analysis of tweets and hashtags related to campaigns from 2016 to 2016. The research results showed that the most important themes are about social and political violence against women. In this regard, some campaigns and hashtags have caused insecurities in the society the most important of which was the campaign of the girls of Enghelab Street in terms of the number of tweets and retweets. the analysis of the themes of tweets showed the absence of news, posts and tweets of people related to campaigns and hashtags. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Girls Lived experiences of the perception of issues and characteristics associated with Gender
      Parvaneh  Danesh maliheh abedi morteza ranjbar
      Issue 7 , Vol. 3 , Spring 2023
      Perception and experience of gender as an established pattern can play a significant role in individuals' social and educational actions. This study focuses on exploring the lived experiences of female students from childhood. The research method employed is qualitative More
      Perception and experience of gender as an established pattern can play a significant role in individuals' social and educational actions. This study focuses on exploring the lived experiences of female students from childhood. The research method employed is qualitative with a phenomenological approach. The sample consists of seventeen female students from Tehran. The sample size was determined based on theoretical saturation principle. Data collection was done through semi-structured interviews, and data analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. After gathering the data, the narratives of the students regarding their experiences of girlhood were coded and categorized. Three main themes emerged from the interviews, which further yielded nine sub-themes and twenty-three concepts during the analysis. The main themes include femininity traits, girlhood issues, and girlhood agency. The sub-themes encompass exclusive traits of girls, gender differences, being a good girl, gender discrimination, gender perspectives, gender stereotypes, changing attitudes, family role in issues, and girlhood strategies. Examining the lived experiences of girls reveals that although the examined samples reproduce some of the common emotional and behavioral characteristics associated with girlhood, the students' narratives indicate that they face limitations and deprivation in society due to their gender. Moreover, they feel a sense of injustice and discrimination in their social and daily lives. The students under study express dissatisfaction with the societal misconceptions about girls and demand more agency and empowerment for girls in society. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Factors Related To the Tendency of Young People to Be Single (Case Study: Hamadan Province)
      Saeed KiyanPour Amirali Farhang Mohsen Hajian
      Issue 7 , Vol. 3 , Spring 2023
      According to social science researchers, the family is the smallest and most important social institution, and marriage is the basis of the family and a desirable and Islamic obligation. There are theories that indicate the desire to marry among young people is influenc More
      According to social science researchers, the family is the smallest and most important social institution, and marriage is the basis of the family and a desirable and Islamic obligation. There are theories that indicate the desire to marry among young people is influenced by economic, social and political factors. The tendency ot marry in the country is considered as one of the important issues and changes in tendency to marry in Hamadan province as one of the provinces of the country were investigated. This research was conducted among the 18-35-year-old youth of Hamadan province in year 2023, and 388 of them were selected for the study using Cochran formula. The collected data were analyzed using Spss software. Results of the research for the tendency to marry indicate that there is a significant relationship between variables such as attachment to parents, individuality in choosing a spouse, idealistic expectations from marriage, having financial resources, believing in the cost- benefit of marriage, socializing with the opposite sex. and there is no connection with the acceptance of gender equality. Finally, the regression results show that the five variables of attachment to parents, idealistic expectation of marriage, having financial resources, belief in the cost-opportunity of marriage, socializing with the opposite sex can account for 60.6% of the variance of the dependent variable (tendency to marriage). Manuscript profile
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Satellite Consumption and its Impact on Social Health
      Ehsan Rahmani khalili
      Issue 4 , Vol. 2 , Summer 2022
      Today, the media, while informing, can change beliefs, feelings, attitudes, social behaviours, and reduce or increase satisfaction and improve life skills by designing programmed messages. This has increased the importance of the role of the media in meeting the basic More
      Today, the media, while informing, can change beliefs, feelings, attitudes, social behaviours, and reduce or increase satisfaction and improve life skills by designing programmed messages. This has increased the importance of the role of the media in meeting the basic needs of society, including social health, and has created a new field of study. Now, the most important question of the present article is: What effect has the consumption of satellite channels by Tehran citizens on their social health in the presence of the variables of voluntary participation and social bonding?The descriptive-causal research approach and survey method were conducted in May 2018. After examining the validity and reliability among 810 citizens of Tehran, the questionnaire was classified by multi-stage sampling method and clustering. The measurement of the social health variable was inspired by the Keys model after localization and the variable of consumption of satellite channels through the amount of time spent watching satellite.The findings of the present study based on the Pearson correlation coefficient test show that the variables of social bonding and voluntary participation have a positive and direct relationship with social health and voluntary participation has a positive and significant effect on social bonding. In examining the relationship between causality, social participation, voluntary participation and the rate of consumption of foreign channels affected social health, the rate of consumption of foreign channels as the most external variable has a negative impact on social health and two other variables. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - The Genesis of Academic Influencers in Iran
      Abbas  varijkazemi
      Issue 4 , Vol. 2 , Summer 2022
      The present article studies, influential academic people in Iran and indicate that the position of influencers in the academic environment has also found its place.To conduct this study, we first investigate the concept of fame culture and then review the relationship b More
      The present article studies, influential academic people in Iran and indicate that the position of influencers in the academic environment has also found its place.To conduct this study, we first investigate the concept of fame culture and then review the relationship between university and influencer culture. The next step is to study the typology of academic influencers in Iran through a literature review, as well as the study of seven professors’ Instagram pages. In general, three general types have been identified. The first category is traditional celebrities, who mostly have a small presence on social networks. The second category is professors-influencers, i.e. those who were born within social networks and whose presence, activity and reputation in the virtual world are greater than in the outside world. The third group has a hybrid identity and has an enriching experience in terms of age, but they are not related to the first group. In other words, they are on the border between the first and the second type, but they have a little bit of their former reputation in the world outside of cyberspace, and they have also created a new position for themselves in social networks.In the comparison between these three types of academics, the major distinctions of academic celebrities as emerging figures will be explained.The professors-influencers are born and live in social networks, they owe their fame to these networks, they establish a more horizontal relationship with their audience, they address a more general population, and they are well aware of the strength of weak ties. And finally, they appear in the role of new intellectual leaders in society. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Pathology of the Effect of Using Social Networks on the Religiosity of Girls and Women
      Tahmineh Shaverdi ReyhanehSadat Sahragard Monfard
      Issue 4 , Vol. 2 , Summer 2022
      Women in relation to the role they play in the family, influence the formation of the identity of next generation;especially due to their role as a mother whom train the children and socializing the future generation. On the other hand, changes that occurred in the worl More
      Women in relation to the role they play in the family, influence the formation of the identity of next generation;especially due to their role as a mother whom train the children and socializing the future generation. On the other hand, changes that occurred in the world in recent decades have provided opportunities to increase this influence. The main object of current research has been understanding the relationship between the use of virtual social networks and the religiosity of women and girls. A quantitative (survey) method has been applied in this research. The research tool is a questionnaire along with an interview. The statistical population of this research consists of women and girls aged 18 to 65 from the cities of Hamedan, Shar-e-Kurd, Shiraz, Ahvaz, Tehran and Kerman, which was conducted based on the evaluation of the developmental level of the provinces announced by the Management and Planning Organization, as well as, the Internet Penetration Rate. The sample size was 1418 people and themulti-stage sampling method were applied. Findings shows that although social networks have an effect on the religiosity of women and girls of the target community,but the effect coefficients are more on ritual dimensions than on belief dimensions and experiential dimensions of religiosity. Also, finding indicat social networks have some effect on Islamic behavior. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Changes in the Family in Contemporary Iran Emphasis on Marriage and Divorce
      shahla kazemipuor
      Issue 4 , Vol. 2 , Summer 2022
      The institution of the family in Iran has faced important changes during the last few decades, such as a transition from extended family to a nuclear family, an increase in marriage age, a decrease in the marriage rate, an increase in absolute celibacy, a change in crit More
      The institution of the family in Iran has faced important changes during the last few decades, such as a transition from extended family to a nuclear family, an increase in marriage age, a decrease in the marriage rate, an increase in absolute celibacy, a change in criteria for choosing a spouse and increase in divorce. The purpose of this study is to present a picture of the evolution of the family and introduce theoretical approaches with an emphasis on the state of marriage and divorce. To explain the evolution of the family, three theoretical approaches have been used, "modernization theory", "second demographic transition theory" and "postmodern theory". In this study, two methods of "documentary" and "secondary analysis" were used. First, the topics related to the background, literature and research theories have been used from available scientific sources. And then, by referring to the data of the results of the censuses, the civil registration organization and the national survey report, the developments of marriage and divorce have been explained. The results showed that during the last four decades, the share of extended families has decreased and the net marriage rate has decreased, the average age of marriage and divorce rates have increased, and the criteria and methods of choosing a spouse and the attitude towards divorce have changed from traditional dimensions to modern ones. To make policies to increase the marriage rate, reduce the age of marriage and reduce the divorce rate, because the causes of most of the changes that have emerged are socio-cultural, it is suggested that instead of providing loans and facilities for marriage or issuing a directive to reduce divorce,special measures should be takenin the field of cultural issues and to change the lifestyle components in the country. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - The AbortionDue to the Mother's Hardship, in the "Family and Youth of the Population's Protection" Act
      Sadegh  Shariati Nasab
      Issue 4 , Vol. 2 , Summer 2022
      For the first time, by the single article (Act) of the "Therapeutic Abortion Act" approved in 2005, abortion was conditionally prescribed due to "fetal disease which causes Hardship to the mother, due to fetal retardation or deformation". With the approval of the "Famil More
      For the first time, by the single article (Act) of the "Therapeutic Abortion Act" approved in 2005, abortion was conditionally prescribed due to "fetal disease which causes Hardship to the mother, due to fetal retardation or deformation". With the approval of the "Family and Youth of the Population's Protection Act" in 2021 and the abrogation of that single article, Hardship-based abortion, has been released from merely fetal disease or defect, and generally has been expanded to "severe unbearable Hardship for the mother". This change is considered a big leap in Iran's legislation and needs to be analyzed and investigated. The purpose of this article is to analyze and explain the conditions, criteria, effects, and efficiency of Hardship-based abortion in the new law. Its method is Descriptive and Analytical. It seems that: 1. Limiting abortion to fetal disease or defects is not logically justified. 2. In some cases, the social and psychological (not physical) Hardship caused by pregnancy, is much more severe and impactful than the fetal diseases. 3. Every dissatisfaction and excuse cannot be considered as a case for a mother's Hardship; rather, the definition, criteria, and examples for Hardship, must be carefully explained. 4. The special procedure in the new Act, guarantees a thorough and comprehensive proceeding to each case. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Examining Goods Smugglingas A Social Issue in the Country
      Reza Safari shali
      Issue 4 , Vol. 2 , Summer 2022
      This article explores one of the most important social issues that is "Smuggling of goods”.In terms of methodology, it has a survey nature and is a descriptive and analytical study. The sample population consists of all residents 16 years and over in seven provinces, in More
      This article explores one of the most important social issues that is "Smuggling of goods”.In terms of methodology, it has a survey nature and is a descriptive and analytical study. The sample population consists of all residents 16 years and over in seven provinces, including Kurdistan West Azarbaijan, Hormozgan and Khorasan (as frontier provinces), Tehran and Isfahan (provinces with highest consumption rate) and Semnan province (province with lowest consumption rate). The sample size was 7230 people. The main findings of this study indicate that the majority of the population (69 percent) believe that there are considerable Smuggling goods in the country, has various disadvantages and devastating effects. This is while, a large part of society has stressed that a variety of foreign goods - including televisions, mobile phones, home appliances and rare drugs that are entered the country through illicit means, due to low price are easily sold on the market, and this is more observed in the provinces with highest consumption rate compared to provinces with lowest consumption rate and frontier provinces. The majority of respondents of the survey (over two-thirds) have stressed that the smuggling of goods is a phenomenon in which different groups and organizations are involved, and convergence, synergy and linkage between flows and organized bands and some figures and influential forces in machines officially facilitate the smuggling process. The respondents also acknowledged that the fight against smuggling requires firm determination of the authorities, and especially the presence and participation of people with the authorities so that by relying on social capital we can fight cleverly against this phenomenon that has various functions and negative consequences. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Sociological Analysis of the Role of Poverty in the Child Marriage Experience (Case: Women in the City of Chabahar)
      Esmat Salahshoor Karam  Habibpour Getabi
      Issue 2 , Vol. 1 , Winter 2021
      Marriage of young girls during childhood is a social issue which has affected the lives of women and young girls in different parts of the world. The aim of this research is to discover the interpretations and rationales of the women in the city of Chabahar regarding th More
      Marriage of young girls during childhood is a social issue which has affected the lives of women and young girls in different parts of the world. The aim of this research is to discover the interpretations and rationales of the women in the city of Chabahar regarding their experience of child marriage through a qualitative methodology and Grounded Theory approach. To this end, using a theoretical sampling method, 28 young girls in Chabahar County were chosen and deep and semi-structured interviews were carried out with them. The categories that provided the causal conditions for the marriage of young girls during childhood years were financial poverty, cultural/educational poverty, unfavorable family circumstances, and gender discrimination. In addition, interventional conditions (poverty of female heads of household, and the femininity of poverty) and contextual conditions (urban poverty, unfriendly living environments, and normalized patriarchy) have become a background for and facilitated the marriage of young girls. Moreover, data analysis using open, axial, and selective coding showed that the central category abstracted from the marriage of young girls in the sample is “extreme poverty, and multifaceted child marriage”. The findings implied that child marriages expose young girls to different kinds of obvious and indirect distressful situations, including child motherhood, child widowhood, domestic violence, dropping out of school, reinforcement of the cycle of poverty, severe depression, and social isolation. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Unemployment, Uneven Regional Development And Spatial Patterns of Internal Migration in Iran
      Rasoul Sadeghi
      Issue 3 , Vol. 2 , Spring 2022
      Internal migration and movement occur in response to a wide range of factors with different effectiveness. One of the important and key contexts for the formation of internal migration is spatial inequality in facilities, opportunities and development components. In thi More
      Internal migration and movement occur in response to a wide range of factors with different effectiveness. One of the important and key contexts for the formation of internal migration is spatial inequality in facilities, opportunities and development components. In this regard, the article uses the secondary analysis of the 2016 census data at the provincial and county levels to investigate the impact of youth unemployment and unequal regional development on internal migration in Iran. The results showed the spatial clusters of unemployment and underdevelopment in the country and inequality in access to economic and social resources and opportunities on the one hand, and regional differences in migration rates, on the other hand. The highest level of development and the lowest unemployment rate of young people, as well as high immigration in the central regions of the country, especially the capital. In contrast, the western, northwestern, eastern and southeastern border regions have the lowest level of development and the highest unemployment and emigration rates. Therefore, internal migration is a dynamic, multidimensional process that arises from structural conditions and regional inequalities. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Using Shunpikes: Women's Strategy for Overcoming Social Constraints in Tourism
      hamed bakhshi fatemeh atri
      Issue 1 , Vol. 1 , Autumn 2021
      The current paper examines the differences between men's and women's tourism experiences as an aspect of leisure. Four factors, including normative restrictions, female roles, economic weakness, and lack of security feeling, lead women to regulate their tourism travels More
      The current paper examines the differences between men's and women's tourism experiences as an aspect of leisure. Four factors, including normative restrictions, female roles, economic weakness, and lack of security feeling, lead women to regulate their tourism travels different from men. For this purpose, the data of the National Survey of Values, Attitudes and Behavior of Tourism in Iran, with a sample size of 5009 people from all provinces of the country, were secondary analyzed. Eight hypotheses related to tourism motivations and behaviors, including having tourism experience, and choosing accommodation, vehicle and tour, were compared between men and women. The results showed that women who traveled alone or with their friends/colleagues, comparing with men, traveled more with tours, less by personal cars, less for recreation purpose, and more for pilgrimage motivation. Women were more likely to travel for visiting relatives when they were alone, and were less likely to camp in trips when traveled with their friends or colleagues. Although the frequency of women who traveled alone or with friends/colleagues were less than men, since their trips with families and relatives were more than men, the total amount of domestic travel by women were not significantly less than men. While the number of foreign trips of women were less than men, the frequency of foreign trips of employed women were not significantly different with men. It seems that despite the serious shortcomings in the quality of women's tourism experience compared to men, by using structural and normative shunpikes, they tried to compensate it. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Fashionism and Youth: An Emerging Social Problem
      Javad Maddahi Alireza Ghobadi
      Issue 1 , Vol. 1 , Autumn 2021
      Fashion is a pervasive concept in the life cycle of the contemporary world. A phenomenon that, more than any other group, seduces young people as its followers and seems to be an emerging social problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the socio-cultural fa More
      Fashion is a pervasive concept in the life cycle of the contemporary world. A phenomenon that, more than any other group, seduces young people as its followers and seems to be an emerging social problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the socio-cultural factors related to youth fashionism. The research method was survey and the statistical population of this research was the youth of Tehran. The sample size was 387 people which was obtained by using Cochran's formula and the sample was selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. The data collection technique is combination of researcher-made and standard questionnaire that was evaluated for validity and reliability. The reliability measurement through Cronbach's alpha test shows an acceptable level. According to the findings of this study, there is a significant relationship between the variables of age, parental education, social class, personality, public media and social networks, religiosity and fashion. The results of regression analysis show that according to the adjusted coefficient of determination in the regression equation, 50.3% of the variance of the dependent variable is explained by independent variables. Individualism showed the strongest relationship with fashion. Also, in the section of structural equation path analysis, the model indices have an acceptable fit. Manuscript profile
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    Institute of Humanities and Social Studies ihss
    Director-in-Charge
    Editor-in-Chief
    bizhan zare (kharazmi univercity)
    Executive Manager
    Editorial Board
    Tahmineh Shaverdi (Associate Professor of Sociology, Institute of) hamed bakhshi (دانشیار جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان رضوی- پژوهشکده گردشگری) forozandeh jafarzadehpour (َAssociate Prof. Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences) bizhan zare (kharazmi univercity) Mohammad Mahdi Forghani (استاد دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی) (استاد گروه علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه تبریز) (استاد تمام دانشگاه B.H.U) ali mohammadzadeh (Professor at Payam Noor University) Mohammad Javad Zahedi Mazandarani (Professor of Payam Noor University) ali akbar mehrabi (استاد اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران) AbouAli Vedadhir (Professor at Tehran University)
    Print ISSN: 2821-0387
    Online ISSN:2821-0379

    Publication period: Quarterly
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    Last Update 4/17/2024